What is String in C?

In C string is represented as an array of character or character array. String is a group of character enclosed within the double quotes (" ") is called as a string or string constant.

String always terminated with a null character {/0} at the end of string.

String example:

	
    I am happy

In above example 'I am happy' is a string. When compiler compile the above string, it appends a null character /0 at the end of string.

How to declare the string in C.?

Syntax of string declaration:

	
    datatype variable_name [size of array] = "any string";
    
    char a[] = "I am happy";
    		or
    char a[10] = "I am happy";
    		or
    char a[] = {'I',' ','a','m',' ','h','a','p','p','y'};
    		or
    char a[10] = {'I',' ','a','m',' ','h','a','p','p','y'}; 
    

In above syntax of string the string is constant. Mean string is fix and you cannot take it at run time.

In string null character display as space.

Reading String from user

scanf() function is use to read a string or any other datatype from the keyword.

Problem with scanf() function

The scanf() function only takes first enter word. scanf() function will automatically terminated after space or just space.

Syntax of reading string from keyword:

	
    char a[10];
    scanf("%s",a);
    

Example of reading string from keyword:

	
    #include<stdio.h>
    #include<conio.h>    
    
    void main()
    {
    	char a[20];
        clrscr();
        printf("Enter your name: ");
        scanf("%s",a);
        printf("Your name is: %s",a);
        
        getch();
    }
    

Output

	
    Enter yout name:
    Campus Life
    Your name is: Campus

In above example, program ignores Life string because scanf() function takes only a single string before the white space, like only Campus.

How to solve single string problem?

To avoid this problem C language people given function, called gets() function. This function read whole line including with white space from keyword.

Example of string with get() function

	
    #include<stdio.h>
    #include<conio.h>    
    
    void main()
    {
    	char a[20];
        clrscr();
        printf("Enter your name: ");
        gets(a);
        printf("Your name is: %s",a);
        
        getch();
     
     }
     

Output

	
    Enter your name: Campus Life
    Your name is: Campus Life
    

printf() function problem

printf() function never give you new line. So solution is.

Two function are there in C language.

	
    gets(); //take string from keyword.
    puts(); //display the string on the screen or on console window.
    

Example of gets() and puts() string function:


    #include<stdio.h>
    #include<conio.h>    
    
    void main()
    {
    	char a[20];
        clrscr();
        puts("Enter your name: ");
        gets(a);
        puts(a);
        
        getch();
     
     }

Output


    Enter your name:
    Campus Life
    Campus Life
    
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